Why do magnets only attract iron objects
What wakes up the magnet. Why the magnet attracts - everything about magnetic fields
Magnets, like toys, stuck on your home refrigerator or horseshoes that you've shown at school have several unusual functions. First, magnets are attracted to iron and steel objects, for example to the refrigerator door. They also have a Pole.
Two magnets close together. The south pole of one magnet attracts the north pole of another. The north pole of one magnet rejects the north pole of the other.
Magnetic and Electric Current
The magnetic field is generated by electric shock, that is, moving electrons. Electrons moving around the atomic nucleus carry a negative charge. The directional movement of charges from one place to another is called an electric shock. The electric current creates a magnetic field.
This field has its own power lines, like a loop, the path of electric current, like an arch over the road. For example, if the table lamp also contains a flow of current, i.e. the electrons in the wire, from the atom to the atom and around the wire, a weak magnetic field is created. In the high voltage transmission lines the current is much stronger than in a table lamp, so a very strong magnetic field is formed around the wires of such lines. So electricity and magnetism are two sides of the same coin - electromagnetism.
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Electron movement and magnetic field
The movement of electrons in each atom creates a tiny magnetic field around it. An electron of motion forms a vortex-shaped magnetic field. But a large part of the magnetic field is not created by the movement of the electron in orbit around the kernel, but the movement of the electron electron around its axis, the so-called electron spin. The spin specifies the rotation of the electron around the axis, as the movement of the planet around its axis.
Why magnetic materials and not magnetic
In most materials, such as plastics, the magnetic fields of individual atoms are randomly aligned and mutually assess each other. In such materials, however, like iron, atoms can orientate so that their magnetic fields work together so that the piece of steel is magnetized. Atoms in materials are connected to groups called magnetic domains. Magnetic fields from a single domain are unidirectional. That is, each domain is a small magnet.
Different domains are oriented in a variety of directions, ie, that is unusual and the magnetic fields of each other are canceled. Therefore the steel band is not a magnet. But if we manage to orient domains in one direction so that the forces are from magnetic fields, then take care! The steel band becomes a powerful magnet and attracts an iron object from the nail to the refrigerator.
It is known that atoms and particles in them rotate around their axis at high speed. Consider this phenomenon in detail in an atom! We pay attention to the side that rotates clockwise, that is, the side of the atom from the left moves up to the right, then from up to down, and then down, with the right, left down. At the same time, the opposite side of this particle rotates counterclockwise. All other particles rotate in the same way. From the previous ones, the atmosphere is known to compress elementary particles. When these particles come into contact with each other as a result of their compression, then the particles that collapse on the side of rotation (clockwise and counterclockwise) are compressed. That is, the effect of attraction arises! And at the same time the cold effect occurs. And these particles, which the parties turn in opposite directions, will repel these particles from each other, while these particles increase in volume, as they want to destroy each other with their interaction. That is, at the same time particles with high velocities in space differ in the form of magnetic waves of expansion and which at the same time form the effect of heat. Our atmosphere is made up of these rotating elementary particles that compress our land from four sides in the horizontal plane and from the side of space. As a result, these electromagnetic currents move to meet each other. And in the course of their movement rotate clockwise. That's on the opposite pages! Therefore, these currents are compressed by the external force in the center of the body of the magnet by the external force, and then these magnetic energy flows overcome in a compressed form in the opposite poles! When these poles are connected to each other, they attract each other since they are currents for all that coincide with their sides of rotation. If another one of these magnets take, then the poles, that this magnet flows, rotate one clockwise and the other against the hour, ie the rotation coincides in one direction, these poles are attracted. That is, shrink! And at the turn, if the rotation of the magnetic flux does not coincide, then such poles are repelled. The fact that the magnets do not have their own energy is proven as follows: 1) The electromagnet has magnetism when the electromagnet of its poles is made so that the rotation of the electrotock is clockwise and counterclockwise, that is, on the opposite sides sections 2) A permanent magnet, if its poles are not closed for a long time, this magnet loses its properties of magnetism. That means that he has lost properties in order to assert himself, these magnetic fluxes. Alexey Mishnev.
Every moving, charged particle creates a magnetic field. If there are many such particles, they move around the same axis, then the magnet is preserved.
If you ask the well-known Nobel Laureate in Physics how the magnet works, try to be clear with your question, otherwise you run serious risks. I warned you.
An atom is made up of the kernel and electrons that rotate around it. Electrons can rotate in various orbits called electronic planes. At each electron level there can be two electrons that rotate in different directions.
However, some substances are not all coupled electrons, and some electrons rotate in the same direction, such substances are called ferromagnets. And since the electron is just a charged particle spinning around the atom in the same side of the electron, you create a magnetic field. It turns out to be a miniature electromagnet.
If the atoms of the substance are arranged in any order, the fields of these nanomagnets compensate each other, as is often the case, the fields of these nanomagnets compensate each other. However, when these magnetic fields are sent to the same side, they form - and the magnet will turn out.
Why not all Magnetic coins?
When mixing machine oil and toner for a laser printer can be obtained through ferrofluid - a liquid that is attracted to a magnet.
Only the ferromagnets are best attracted to a magnet because they have unpaired rotating electrons. In the moving charges in a magnetic field, Lorentz will act, so the magnet will attract other ferromagnets.
But not all metals in atoms have unpaired electrons, Lorentz force acts on coupled electrons in opposite sides so that they are not attracted by magnets. For example, modern coins of 10 kopeks, 50 kopeks and 10 rubles are magnetic, and one, two and five rubles are non-magnetic because they are made of copper alloys, which is not a ferromagnet.
In a broad sense, the magnet is an element with its own magnetic field. This is a piece of steel or iron ore with aluminum, cobalt, and nickel impurities. The magnet contains a large number of components called domains, each of which has the south and north poles. In the combined state the domains form a single magnetic mass with multiple centered poles. When the domains are in an irregular state, they lose ownership to attract iron and their magnetic power is completely lost.
Due to the specificity of the domain connections, each magnet has two poles - south and north. If the magnet is cut, its polarity will also be saved. There are three types of magnets: natural, electromagnet and temporary magnets. Natural magnets are iron ore. Elements that are subject to the influence of the magnetic field (nails, clips, nuts, coins) are temporary. Electromagnets are magnets with an induction coil and an electric current passed through it.
Why do magnets attract iron?
Each magnetic domain is a separate small microscopic magnet. When the iron approaches them, the elements change their position and are built into the peculiar row. The poles are directed in one direction, which creates the unity of the magnetic field. Iron elements immediately come into contact with the magnetic domains and begin to accept.
The process of attracting iron magnets and other magnets is due to the laws of physics. Magnet domains, which are electrodes, have their own mass and charge. With the randomness of the loading charges, the domains start moving at a slow speed. Iron elements in a magnet and a piece of pure iron with no impurities have similarities in their composition. Such a nuance becomes the main reason to attract the electrodes to each other.
The magnet does not attract a tree, plastic, or other non-metallic material. The characteristic of the ordered movement and the location of the electrodes is different only steel and iron. Because of such factors, the only materials the magnet attracts are steel and iron.
A separate piece of steel or iron can be turned into a temporary magnet. If you then keep the magnet and one of the specified elements, the electrodes in the steel will begin to form their own magnetic field. Atoms will increase in size. For some time now, the ability to magazine has been going on, and a piece of steel or iron can be used as an independent magnet.
It is difficult to find a person who would not know what a magnet is. More specifically, a particular piece of metal can attract different iron objects to itself, as well as attract or repel each other to another magnet. But not everyone here knows the nature of such phenomena. Although the essence of the magnet does not pay special secrets and troubles. Everything is pretty simple in there. Let us consider the cause and the nature in this article, that is the basis of the work of the magnet.
So start with the following first. I think you had to hear that the basis of the work of all electrical devices is the movement of electrical current on the internal chains of the device. The electric current is small electric particles with a certain electric charge and properly motivated in the conductors (everything that conducts by itself) when such an opportunity arises (when a closed circuit occurs). Particles with a negative charge are called electrons. They are their work (movement) in solid substances. In liquid I. gaseous substances moving ions with positive charge.
What is the connection between electrically charged particles and magnets that express its essence? And the connection is straight! Scientists have long established that the magnetic field occurs precisely around the moving electrical charge. You might also hear that the magnetic fields exist around conventional wires for which the current is dated. As soon as the current stops moving, the electromagnetic field also disappears. This is the essence and condition for the appearance of the magnetic field.
It is known from school physics that all things around us and articles consist of atoms and molecules (sufficiently small elementary particles). Again, these most elementary particles have the following structure. Inside there is a kernel (made up of protons and neutrons) (the kernel has a plus charge), and around this core, at low speed, smaller particles are rotated, these are electrons (with a negative charge).
So the essence of the magnet is as follows. Since we found out that the magnetic field occurs around moving electric charges, and electrons are in all atoms and molecules, and they are constantly moving, so atoms and molecules have magnetic fields around them (they are very small and strength and size). The additives should take into account that different substances and elements have different magnetic properties. Some magnetic properties are expressed very strongly and others have so much, which indicates the complete absence of fields.
Here is the basis of the nature and essence of the magnet. But even these substances, which have a greater intensity of manifestation of magnetic fields (these are ferromagnets, the most famous being simple iron) is not always magnetic. Why so? Because there is an effect of unidirectionality and chaos. I will explain what it is. The essence of the magnet (manifestation of magnetism) depends not only on the substance, but also on the position of atoms and molecules that are inside the substance. When two magnets combine so that their poles coincide in that direction, the magnetic force of the fields strengthens each other and the ultimate common field becomes stronger. However, if these magnets are arranged with opposite poles relative to each other, they will of course carbonize each other and their common field can be increased. Within substances, in order to obtain the greatest magnetic field, it is necessary that all atoms and molecules of the magnetic substance be unidirectional from their poles. This is achieved in a number of ways.
And thus treated with the essentiality of the magnet and its natural efficacy. Now a little bit about how magnets are made. If you need to make permanent magnet (an ordinary piece of magnet that is constantly magnetite), take the material from the ferromagnet, put it in a magnetic field with sufficient intensity at a certain time. Then this ferromagnet itself begins to have magnetic properties. As a result of being placed in a magnetic field of great intensity turned in one direction, rotated in one direction, which served as the effect of the device elec- tricity of atoms and molecules.
To get electromagnets, we use simple copper coils, the inside of which has a ferromagnetic core arranged to improve the overall magnetic effect. That is, when a sustained current passes through this coil, it begins to attract iron objects to itself. The coil after that flows the current (charged particles). As a result, the electromagnetic field appears around him. The more winding coil turns and the more current flows, the greater the magnetic force is caused around it.
P. Basically, we have figured out the nature and essence of the magnet. Knowing General Principle The devices and operation of the magnet (electromagnet) now became clear why the magnets attract iron objects.
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