What is a computerized information system

computerized information systems

Here the computer takes over the quick acquisition, processing, evaluation, storage and provision of the relevant data (database system). Man and machine work closely together. In practice, a distinction is often no longer made between computer and information systems. A computer-aided information system is understood to be an information processing system that consists of the elements computer and human. The processes of recording, processing, expanding, storing and providing relevant data are automated by the computer. Humans and computers are connected to one another via various types of communication. The human takes on the tasks that cannot be processed by the computer. As a result, the human-machine system designed in this way is separated from the machine-machine system, in which individual computers automatically solve various tasks and exchange information via communication links. In the context of a pragmatic perspective, technical aspects (configuration and performance potential of IT systems), methodological aspects (conceptual solutions and program implementation) and organizational aspects (technical applications and design issues) must be distinguished from one another. Against this background, four components or subsystems can be distinguished from one another: • data and databases, • model and method databases, • machines and programs, • humans or users. The first three components belong to the field of information technology. The human being, who acts as a generator and user of information and is himself an information processing system, is an integral part of this computerized information system. The figure shows the structure of a computerized information system. It shows a user who is exposed to environmental influences and who makes decisions and who interacts with an information technology system by sending certain inquiries to it and receiving certain answers. Such interactions can consist, for example, in the input of assumptions and the output of (impact) projections. The information processing required for this is carried out by information technology using the machine system, which is controlled by the operating system and fed via the application program system (application software). The information processing itself includes the decision-relevant analysis of the data stored in the database with the help of either methods from the method bank or models from the model bank. Communication links between all components of the information technology system form the basis for interactions. The information systems described by the four components process a certain task in isolation or are part of a system network with other information systems, within which the entities involved exchange information. In the second case, the individual information systems form subsystems of a newly created, higher-level, computer-aided information system.

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