Why did Augustus succeed where Caesar failed

Political and cultural development of Rome

B.C.

 
Culture
          30
  • Aug. 3, 30: Antony's final defeat at Alexandria, which Octavianus takes on Aug. 3. Antony and Cleopatra take their own lives. Caesarion is killed on his flight to India.
  • Egypt becomes a Roman province (Cass.Dio 51.17; Vell.2.39; Suet.Oct.18; Tac.ann.2.59).
  • With this the civil wars came to an end, but also, as will be shown later, the "libera res publica Romana".
  • Gaius Iulius Caesar Octavianus (Augustus) is sole lord of the Roman Empire and Roman Emperor (Cass.Dio 51-56; Suet.Aug .; Vell.2,88-123; Mon.Ancyr.)

    Overview of the redistribution of the balance of power under Augustus

    • 29 Award of the "ius tribunicium" and the "imperium" (extensions of the "imperium" in the years 18, 13, 8, 3 AD and 13 AD each to 10 or 5 years)
    • 28 Award of the title "princeps senatus"
    • Jan 13, 27 Resignation of the triumviral power (Suet Aug 28). In return he receives the "imperium proconsulare" from the imperial provinces assigned to him and a confirmation from the imperium over the army.
    • January 16, 27, the honorary title Augustus by a resolution of the Senate
    • July 1, 23 award of the tribunicia potestas
    • 23 BC Augustus receives the potestas proconsularis, which grants him the ultimate supervision of the governors of all provinces, including the senatorial ones. This concluded his power.
    • 19 BC:
      • a) By transferring the "cura legum et morum", b) legislative power, c) consular power for life, Augustus is at the height of his power ..
      • Simultaneous weakening of other institutions (leveling of all forces opposing the emperor):
        • A triumph is only granted to members of the imperial family, private individuals only receive the insignia (ornamenta) triumphalia.
        • The consulate is shortened more and more in the following years, initially to half a year, then regularly only two months, finally only the insignia consularia are awarded.
        • Multiple cleanings of the Senate (from 1000 to 300 members): After 28 repetitions: 18, 13 (Cass.Dio 54.26), 11 (Cass.Dio 54.35) and 2 (Cass.Dio 55.13).
        • Depreciation of the Roman Civil rights through the establishment of approx. 60 colonies in the provinces and through the elevation of provincial cities to Muncipien. This development leads to the fact that at the beginning of the 3rd century the precedence of the Roman citizenship is abolished in the whole empire.
        • Elimination of privileges of the city Romans:
          • Repeal of Tax exemption
            • Introduction of an auction tax: 1% on all items auctioned in public auctions (centesima rerumg venalium) immediately after the end of the civil war.
            • 6 AD Introduction of an inheritance tax of 5% on all inheritances with a value of over 100 thousand sesterces (vicesima hereditatum) passed to more distant relatives.
            • 7 AD Introduction of a 2% tax on the proceeds from the sale of slaves.
          • Repeal of the ban military presence in the capital. Establishment of:
            • 9 Praetorian cohorts (1000 men on foot and 200 horsemen each), three of which had quarters in Rome under Augustus.
            • 3 urban cohorts (cohortes urbanae)
            • 7 guardian cohorts (cohortes vigilum)
            • Life guard for the imperial family (mostly Teutons and Batavians).
    • 12 BC: election as pontiff (after the death of Marcus Aemilius Lepidus)
    • 2 BC August receives the title "pater patriae"
    • Social stratification:
      • A largely disempowered nobility (at least 1 million sesterces assets), which thereby also lost interest in a policy and surrendered to private well-being;
      • The knight class as the middle class, whose members had at least 400 thousand sesterces and had to descend from free parents. He was still mainly involved in monetary transactions;
      • The great mass of the dispossessed and unemployed people, heirs of the world-ruling populus Romanus, who made their living by donating money, grain and playing games (panem et circenses - bread and games) without any effort of their own. There was an inflationary increase in the number of holidays.
    • The Role of the army: Of 50 legions at the end of the civil war, Augustus initially continued to run 18. He increased them (approx. 5 AD) by a further 8 legions. Due to the defeat of the Varus he lost 3 legions, of which he only replaced two. Augustus left 25 legions at his death. The legions were divided among the provinces. The highest warlord (imperator) was the emperor. Redefinition of the service period in 13 BC. and in the year 5 BC.
      • 13 BC: 16 years in general, 12 years for the Praetorians;
      • 5 BC: 20 years in general, 16 years for the Praetorians.
      • The soldiers could voluntarily stay longer and were compensated with a cash grant when they left.
    • 29 Toleration divine worship of the emperor initially in the provinces, from 12 also in the west (as in Lugdunum).
    • Restructuring of the city in 14 regions
    • The police violence in the city and 30 km in the vicinity has been constantly the newly created since 25 prefectus urbi (City Prefect) transferred. He is appointed by the emperor and is solely responsible to him.
    • Restoration of
      • traditional Roman values ​​(virtutes):
        • Laws against excessive luxury in meals, clothing, and public games.
        • Marriage laws
          • 28 BC: celibacy and childlessness are sanctioned by disadvantages. 18 modified.
          • 9 AD: LEX PAPIA POPPAEA
      • traditional religious traditions
        • Renewal of derelict temples
        • Replenishment of orphaned priesthoods (e.g. flamen Dialis);
        • Revision of the Sibylline Books
    • Promotion of poetry and prose that showed a national Roman tendency and placed itself in the service of the Augustan renewal: Livy, Virgil, Horace.

    Tac.ann.1,2: Postquam Bruto et Cassio caesis nulla iam publica arma, Pompeius apud Siciliam oppressus exutoque Lepido, interfecto Antonio ne Iulianis quidem partibus nisi Caesar dux reliquus, posito triumviri nomine consulem se ferens et ad tuendam plebem tribunicio iure contentitum, ubun cu ... dulcedine otii pellexit, insurgere paulatim, munia senatus magistratuum legum in se trahere, nullo adversante, cum ferocissimi per acies aut proscriptione cecidissent, ceteri nobilium, quanto quis servitio promptesentior, opibusa et honoribus extollerentur ac novis ex rebus a eti tuta veteric et mallent. neque provinciae illum rerum statum abnuebant, suspecto senatus populique imperio ob certamina potentium et avaritiam magistratuum, invalido legum auxilio, quae vi ambitu postremo pecunia turbabantur.

    After the fall of Brutus and Cassius, there was no longer a state army. Pompey was destroyed near Sicily, Lepidus ousted, Antony slay. The Julier party also had only one leader, Caesar, who now gave up the triumvirate, took over the consulate and was satisfied with the tribunician powers to protect the people. He won the soldiers through gifts, the people through grain donations, and everyone through the pleasant tranquility. And now he gradually raised his head. He took over the powers of the Senate, the officials and the legislature. He did not find an opponent. The bravest had fallen in the battles or eliminated by the proscriptions, and the rest of the nobility were given more money and offices the more willing they were to submit to servitude. Those who had taken advantage of the turn of events naturally preferred the safe present to the dangerous past. The provinces were not reluctant to see the new conditions either. The republican regiment had been spoiled for them by the quarrels of the rulers and the greed of the officials. The laws had failed: violence, party influence, and even direct bribery had made them ineffective. (Ex .: A.Horneffer)
  • Roman literature flourished in the Augustan period
    Suet.Aug.89,3: Ingenia saeculi sui omnibus modis fovit. recitantis et benigne et patient audiit, nec tantum carmina et historias, sed et orationes et dialogos. componi tamen aliquid de se, nisi et serio et a praestantissimis, offendebatur, admonebatque praetores, ne paterentur nomen suum commissionibus obsolefieri.He promoted the talents of his time in every way. He listened to lecturers with benevolence and with patience; and not only poems and historical works, but also speeches and dialogues. But he only appreciated writing about himself if it was done in a dignified manner and by the best writers; he also warned the praetors not to allow his name to be misused in literary competitions. (Adapted from A. Lambert)
  • Egypt becomes a Roman province (Cass.Dio 51.17; Vell.2.39; Suet.Aug.18; Tac.ann.2.59): Octavianus remains in Egypt for some time and personally regulates the rebuilding of his economy and administration. Egypt was supposed to cover its private financial needs and become Italy's breadbasket. He appointed the knight and poet Gaius Cornelius Gallus as governor (for personal security reasons).
  • Octavianus spends the winter in Syria to reorganize the East.
    • In doing so, he wins Influence on the Parthians: As a result of the general changes, the expelled Parthian King Phraates succeeded in eliminating his opponent and successor Tiridates and regaining power. Both turn to Octavianus to ensure that he is protected as arbiter. Tiridates hands a son of Phraates over to Octavianus as a hostage. Octavianus acted cautiously: he gives Tiridates asylum in Syria and a base of operations for his plans, he holds out Phraates and he takes his son with him to Rome as a hostage. 23 both turn to Rome for help.
  • Even before his return to Italy, the Senate showered him with honorable resolutions:
    • Arches of victory for Octavianus are to be erected in Brundisium and Rome;
    • Octavian's reception is to be designed as a feast day;
    • January 3rd is to be celebrated every year with solemn vows for the well-being (pro salute) of Octavianus. Every four years, the festival is to be held in a particularly solemn manner with games. In this form it took place for the first time in 28;
    • Octavian's name is said to be included in the divine names of the Salier songs;
    • Octavianus is allowed to wear the laurel wreath continuously beyond triumph.
  • Historian:
    • Titus Livius
    • Trogus Pompey
  • Poetry:
    • P.Vergilius Maro 70-19 BC.
    • Q. Horatius Flaccus
    • Albius Tibullus
    • S. propertius
    • P. Ovidius Naso
29
  • Consulate of
  • cos. suff.
    • Potitus Valerius Messalla (for Appuleius)
  • At the beginning of the year, the Senate takes an oath on the Acta Octaviani and thus approves in advance all of Octavian's previous orders (Cass.Dio 51.20). This process was repeated several times later (Cass.Dio 53.28; Cass.Dio 54.10; Tac.ann.1.72)
  • toleration divine worship the emperor initially in the province of Asia: Augustus allows this province to build a temple for him and the city of Rome in Pergamum.
  • At the beginning of August, contrary to the intentions of the Senate, Caesar Octavianus returned to Rome almost unnoticed
    • He satisfied the people with games and the army with gifts.
    • He triumphs for three days in a row from August 13-15:
      • at the 13 Aug for successes before Actium,
      • at the 14 Aug for the victory of Actium and
      • at the 15 Aug for Egypt: two children of Cleopatra are carried along in a triumphal procession and a portrait of the dying Cleopatra.
    • To celebrate the triumph, the "Thyestes" by Lucius Varius Rufus is performed; In addition, every citizen receives 400 sesterces, every legionnaire 1000 sesterces, every veteran property in Italy or in the provinces. Older debts are canceled in connection with triumph.
    • Caesar Octavianus had the Temple of Jan closed for the first time since 235, in order to also outwardly live up to his claim to be Prince of Peace, which he repeated twice (25 and probably 2 BC) (Cass.Dio 51:20; cf. Liv.1.19; Vell.2.38; Mon.Ancyr.2.42; Suet.Nero 22; Oros.6.22). He reduced the Roman military to 18 legions.
  • Redefinition of his position of power:
    • Caesar Octavianus resigns all extraordinary powers, only keeps the consulate and the imperium (the supreme command of the troops) but now receives the ius tribunicium from the Senate for life, i.e. inviolability and the right to object. (Cass. Dio 51,19; Tac.ann.1,2), (while the tribunicia potestas 23 follows).
    • The LEX SAENIA de plebeiis in patricios adlegendis, the Lucius Saenius, the cos.suff. of the previous year (Tac.ann.11.25; Cass.Dio52.42) allowed him to fill up the patrician class with deserved plebeians as well as to cleanse the Senate of unworthy members ("subterranean - Orcini") and thus the Senate , which had swelled to 1,000 members in the civil wars, to make it a politically manageable instrument again and to secure its influence on this body.
    • Reorganization of censorship and implementation of the first censorship since 70 BC. The count of 4,063,000 citizens suggests a population of 16 million.
      Mon.Ancyr.2,2:(2) Patriciorum numerum auxi consul quintum iussu populi et senatus. Senatum ter legi. Et in consulatu sexto censum populi conlega M. Agrippa egi. Lustrum post annum alterum et quadragensimum fec [i]. Quo lustro civium Romanorum censa sunt capita quadragiens centum millia et sexaginta tria millia. Tum i [teru] m consulari cum imperio lustrum [s] olus feci C. Censorin [o et C.] Asinio cos., Quo lustro censa sunt civium Romanoru [m capita] quadragiens centum millia et ducenta triginta tria m [illia. Et] t [er] t [i] um consulari cum imperio lustrum conlega Tib. Cae [sare filio meo feci] sex. Pompeio et sex. Appuleio cos .; quo lustro ce [nsa sunt civium Ro] manorum capitum quadragiens centum mill [ia et nongenta tr] iginta et septem millia. Legibus novis m [e auctore l] atis [multa] exempla maiorum exolescentia iam ex nostro [saecul] o red [uxi et ip] se multarum rerum exempla imitanda post [eris tradidi].In my fifth consulate (29 BC) I increased the number of patricians at the behest of the people and the Senate. I reconstituted the Senate three times and had an appraisal of the people carried out in my sixth consulate (28 BC) with my colleague M. Agrippa. After forty-two years I did another lustrum; on that occasion four million and sixty-three thousand Roman citizens were counted. Later, based on my consular authority, I was among the consuls. Censorinus and C. Asinius (8 BC) alone carried out such a census, counting four million two hundred and thirty-three thousand Roman citizens. A third time, by virtue of consular authority, I held such a lustrum with my son Tiberius Caesar as a colleague among the consuls Sext. Pompeius and Sext. Apuleius (14 AD), whereby the head number of the Roman citizens was determined to be four million nine hundred and thirty-seven thousand . By means of new laws at my instigation, I have brought back to life many institutions of the fathers, which were already threatening to disappear in our epoch, and handed them down for posterity for many things. (E. Weber)
  • Fighting at the borders was not of central importance in relation to domestic politics:
  • Publius Vergilius Maro begins with his Aeneid
  • Strabo of Amaseia (geographer) approx. 65 BC. - AD 25
28
  • Consulate of
  • Continuation of the redefinition of his position of power:
  • The Temple of Apollo on the Palatine Hill will be completed after construction began in 36.Caesar Octavianus had a public library ("Bibliotheca Palatina") set up in it (Cass.Dio 53.1; Suet.Aug.29), after that of Asinius Pollio in the "Atrium Libertatis" from the year 40 (Plin.nat.7 , 30,115; Plin.nat.35,2,115; Ov.trist.3,1,71) and after the foundation of the "Bibliotheca Octavia" by Octavianus in the year 33 (Cass.Dio 49,43; Plut.Marc.30) the third in Rome. The polyhistor Gaius Iulius Hyginus becomes the librarian. For the inauguration, a rhinoceros fight with a hippopotamus will be shown for the first time in Rome.
  • The veterans are taken care of in large numbers by settling in the "coloniae Iuliae". The land donors are financially compensated.
  • Fights in the border areas:
  • Sextus propertius, strategies of love to Cynthia
  • Dilapidated Temple Reconstruction Program.
  • Mausoleum of Augustus as a Juliet family grave in cylindrical form on the Marsfeld.
  • Consecration of the Temple of Apollo (Palatine Hill)
27
  • Consulate of
  • Continuation of the redefinition of his position of power:
    • declared on Jan 13, 27in the Senate, his task has been fulfilled, he is resigning his functions, and thus formally restoring the old "libera res publica" (Cass.Dio 53,3-11; Suet.Aug.28).
    • The whole thing seems to be well staged, because in the Senate they ask Octavianus so emphatically not to withdraw that he cannot refuse:
      • He receives the "imperium proconsulare" over the imperium provinces assigned to him, i.e. he is appointed governor of all important provinces and commander-in-chief of the Roman legions stationed there.
      • The empire over the army was reaffirmed to him.
      • The advantage of both measures: His power is now completely legitimate and authorized by the Senate.
    • Caesar Octavianus receives on Jan. 16, 27 the honorary title Augustus by a senate resolution This title had a religious influence and builds a bridge to the Hellenistic rulers' cult (Cass.Dio 53.16; Suet.Aug.7; Vell.2.91; Ov.fast 1.587ff.).
    • His house was decorated with laurel branches and a citizen's crown. In his honor, a golden shield was placed in the Basilica Iulia.
    • In addition to the Senate, Augustus set up a smaller but devoted personal advisory staff, which, however, did not exist until 13 AD. gained institutional authority.
  • The provinces are divided between Augustus and the Senate (Cass.Dio 53: 12-15). All officials in the province now receive a salary:
    • The militarily pacified provinces, in which the state holder ("proconsul") can do without an army, go to the Senate: Africa, Numidia, Asia, Achaia, Dalmatia, Macedonia, Sicilia, Creta, Cyrene, Bithynia, Sardinia, Hispania Baetica. These provinces are administered by legates (governors of the emperor), the income flows into the imperial treasury, which is administered by procurators.
    • Augustus took over the provinces in which an army had to be present: Spain, Gaul, Syria, Cilicia, Egypt. These provinces are administered by proconsuls and propraetors, the income flowing into the state treasury (aerarium), which is administered by quaestors.
  • Foreign policy is gaining in importance again, but Augustus is all about calming down and securing, not about conquering:
    • Augustus goes to Lugdunum (Lyons) to put things in order in Gaul. On the way he was resisted by the Salassians who lived there in the western Alps. 16-13 he is there again:
      • Redefinition of the borders between the four Gallic provinces of Narbonensis, Aquitania, Lugdunensis, Belgica. Road construction with Lugdunum as the center. Division into districts and determination of tax levies (vicesima Galliarum). Continuation of the reorganization 16 BC.
    • Regulation of the Rhine border to defend against the Teutons. In Germania superior and Germania inferior (with the Nahe river as the border river), with 8 legions, almost half of the Roman army was located.
    • Augustus renounced an allegedly planned campaign to Britain, because from there the credible assurance of submission to Lugdunum was reported.
    • War against the Asturians and Cantabrians (27-25)who continued to revolt until their final submission (19) (Cass.Dio 53.25f .; Cass.Dio 54.5; Cass.Dio 54.11; Vell.2.90):
      • In autumn Augustus went to Spain with an army in the area of ​​the Ebro springs to put an end to the constant uprisings.
      • It was only after Augustus had withdrawn to Tarraco because of illness that his legate, Gaius Antistius, was able to inflict a significant defeat on the Spaniards.
      • Furthermore, the Romans locked the Spaniards in a mountain fortress and forced them to surrender there
      • Eventually, Titus Carisius was able to conquer the important city of Lancia.
      • Augustus founded military colonies to better monitor the country, including in 25 BC. Augusta Emerita (Merida), which he settled with veterans.
      • Augustus returns to Rome in 25 and closes the gates of the Temple of Jan for the second time after 29.
      • New surveys in Spain followed on 24, 22 and finally 19. After that, the country was pacified for the long term.
  • Titus Livius (59-17 AD) publishes the first parts of his Roman history "ab urbe condita"
  • Albius Tibullus (54 - 19 BC) publishes strategies of love to Delia.
  • Agrippa Monument in front of the Propylaea of ​​the Acropolis in Athens.
  • Round temple of the Roma and Augustus on the Acropolis.
  • Actual games at Nikopolis renewed.
26
  • Agrippa had the Pantheon built (Cass.Dio 53,27; Plin.nat.36,15,102). On the other measures to beautify the city: Suet.Aug.28-30
  • Foreign policy
    • Aulus Terentius Varro Murena moves on behalf of Augustus against the Salasser, who had resisted him when crossing the Alps the previous year.
    • Gaius Cornelius Gallus loses the office of governor in Egypt because of his vanity: he had statues erected all over the country and misused the pyramids as inscriptions for his deeds. He was recalled and his property confiscated. Then he threw himself on his sword. He was succeeded by Gaius Aelius Gallus.
25
  • The foreign policy:
    • Aulus Terentius Varro Murena penetrated the Salasser area from different sides: he had the 44,000 survivors sold into slavery and, to secure the Alpine passes (Great and Small St. Bernhard) at the foot of the mountains, the Augusta Praetoria colony (Aosta) establish.
    • Foundation of Augusta Raurica (Augst)
    • Teutons who invade Gaul across the Rhine are pushed back by Marcus Vinicius.
    • On behalf of Augustus, the new governor of Egypt, Gaius Aelius Gallus, undertakes a campaign with ten thousand men and a fleet to Arabia Felix (Yemen) (Str. 16,280-282; Str. 17,819).
      • 24 Departure of the Cleopatris fleet (Arsinoe on the Gulf of Suez)
      • Aelius Gallus fails because of his poor local knowledge and because of his local guide Syllaeus, who deliberately misled him. Although he reached the border of the Arabia Felix with great losses, he then had to turn back due to total exhaustion of his strength.
  • Augustus sets up the permanent office of the prefectus urbi (City Prefect) who is responsible for coordinating the city police (esp. The cohortes urbanae). For a short time Maecenas had already performed this function in 36 and 31 during Octavianus' absence. The city prefect is appointed by the emperor and is solely responsible to him.
  • Marriage of Julia, Augustus' daughter, to his nephew Marcus Claudius Marcellus
  • The Romans inherit Galatia from King Amyntas, which they set up as a new province.
  • The Romans form an alliance with Mytilene on Lesbos.
  • Numidia is united with the province of Africa. King Iuba II marries Cleopatra Selene (Cleopatra's daughter with Marcus Antonius) and, as patronus, is also responsible for Mauritania (capital Caesarea).
  • Basilica Neptuni (Field of Mars)
  • Agrippa's thermal baths on the Marsfeld
  • Tomb of Eurysaces at the Porta Praenestina (t.p.q.).
24
  • Consulate of
    • Emperor Augustus (X)
    • Gaius Norbanus Flaccus
  • After his return from Spain, Augustus announced that he would give 100 drachmas to every citizen. The Senate waived the legally required approval of this gift (Cass.Dio 53,28).
  • Augustus made possible
    • his nineteen-year-old nephew and son-in-law Marcellus to apply for the consulate 10 years ahead of time,
    • his stepson Tiberius to hold the respective offices 5 years ahead of time.
  • Universal history of Diodorus Suculus
  • Tholos tomb of Caecilia Metella on the Via Appia.
  • Bronze head of Augustus from Herculaneum (Mus. Naples)
23
  • Caesar Octavianus Augustus fell so seriously ill that one feared his death. When he called the high magistrates to him, it was expected that he would appoint Marcellus as his successor. In reality, he gave his fellow consul Piso an accountability report and otherwise proved his republican attitude. He was healed again through a new type of therapy by the doctor Antonius Musa. Augustus thanks him by giving the released doctor a knighthood.
  • On July 1, Augustus renounces the continuation of the consulate, which he had held continuously since 31, and receives the tribunician power (tribunicia potestas) on July 27, after he had already received the ius tribunicium in 29, and the highest proconsular power. With that, his powers were largely complete. (Cass.Dio 51.19; Tac.ann.1.29; Tac.ann.3.56)
    Tac.ann.3,56: Tiberius [...] mittit litteras ad senatum, quis potestatem tribuniciam Druso petebat. id summi fastigii vocabulum Augustus repperit, ne regis aut dictatoris nomen adsumeret ac tamen appellatione aliqua cetera imperia praemineret.Tiberius sent a letter to the Senate requesting tribunician power for Drusus. Augustus had come up with this designation for the highest position of power, in order not to be called king or dictator and yet to surpass the other offices with a title. (E.Gottwein)
  • In addition to the sacrosanctitas and the ius intercessionis, the original rights of the tribunate, the tribunicia potestas includes all rights that the tribunes had fought for over time, in particular the right to
    • To assemble the people and the Senate,
    • to submit motions in both committees, and to have their motions given binding force by the People's Assembly.
  • At the same time Augustus was given the highest proconsular power (potestas proconsularis), with which he received supreme supervision over the governors of all provinces, including the senatorial ones. This concluded his power.
  • In Rome there is a general rise in prices and an epidemic is spreading.
  • The conspiracy of Aulus Terentius Varro Murena and Fannius Caepio against Augustus is exposed.
  • Death of Marcellus.
  • Horace publishes the first three books of his carmina.
  • Ovid begins his love poem

 

22
  • Augustus refuses to accept various positions offered to him:
  • But he takes over the cura annonae (supplying Rome with grain).
  • Augustus forbids the wives and sons of senators to appear in the theater as actors or in mimus as dancers.
  • Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa married Augustus' daughter Iulia. This marriage gave birth to nine children, including Gaius Iulius Caesar and Lucius Iulius Caesar, who were born to Augustus in 17 BC. adopted, as well as Agrippina maior and Agrippa Postumus.
  • Augustus makes a trip to the east from 22-19, while riots regularly occur in Rome in connection with the consular elections.
    • in the winter of 22:21 he is in Sicily;
    • 21 Athens: Because Athens Antony supported, Augustus withdrew from them Aegina and Eretria; He presented the Spartans with Cythera because they had once given hospitality to Livia.
    • Winter 21 on 20 stay in Samos.
    • 20 trips in Asia Minor.
      • In 23 the Parthian king Phraates IV and his opponent Tiridates turned to Rome for help. Even now Augustus held out both of them. He had returned his son to Phraates in return for an assurance that he would exchange the 53 standards lost at Carrhae and the prisoners in return. Tiberius now accepted standards and prisoners on behalf of Augustus when he was on the way to Armenia with his army.
      • With his campaign to Armenia, Tiberius was supposed to replace Artaxias there with his brother Tigranes II. This was also requested by the Armenians themselves. Artaxias had been driven out by Antony34 but brought back to power by Phraates. Tigranes had grown up in Rome and was in the army of Tiberius. Even before Tiberius had arrived, the Armenians eliminated Artaxias of their own accord and made Tigranes king.
    • Winter 21 to 20 again stay in Samos.
  • War of Gaius Petronius, the successor of Gaius Aelius Gallus as governor of Egypt against the Ethiopians and their Queen Candace.
    • Candace had taken advantage of the absence of Aelius Gallus and conquered three border towns (Elephantine, Philae, Syene) and put down the Roman occupation.
    • 22: Gaius Petronius recaptures the lost cities and also conquers the Ethiopian cities Pselchis, Premnis and the capital Napata. Then he retires to Egypt.
    • 21: Because Candace does not rest, Gaius Petronius repeats the move.
    • Candace asks for peace and receives it from Augustus, whom she visits personally in Samos in winter 21/20.
  • The administration of Gallia Narbonensis is entrusted to the Senate.
  • Since August23 gave up the annual consulate and 22 refused the consulate for life, there has been considerable unrest in connection with the consulate elections. In the elections for 21, initially only one consul was elected and Augustus offered the free office. When he refused, there were sharp arguments between the two applicants Quintus Aemilius Lepidus and Lucius Silanus, in which Quintus Aemilius Lepidus prevailed. The unrest intensified in the years that followed.
21
20
  • The Parthian king Phraates IV returns the standard captured by Crassus at Carrhae (Cass.Dio 54.8; Suet.Aug.21; Vell.2.91; Hor.c.3,5; Hor.c.4.15; Hor.ep.1,13; Ov.trist.2,227; Mon.Ancyr.4,40; coin images; breastplate of Augustus of Primaporta). This peace treaty brought peace to the Romans until the Phraates were murdered in 2 BC.
  • In the consulate elections for 19, only Gaius Sentius was initially elected. The unrest came to a head that the Senate, in order to avert the danger, offered Gaius Sentius special powers and sent two special envoys to Augustus. Augustus appointed one of the two, Quintus Lucretius, consul and announced his return for the next year.
  • Augustus takes over the supervision of the road construction in Italy (cura viarum).
  • The administration of the provinces strives for both standardization and differentiation:
    • Standardization: all provinces are under the uniform supervision and sovereignty of Augustus:
      • On the forum erection of the golden milestone, from which all roads of the empire start and the individual distances are measured.
      • To promote communication, set up a kind of state post (messenger, car stations)
      • The topographical mapping of all known countries that Caesar44 BC. Agrippa closes 19 with the publication of the tables.
      • Holding of censuses and asset assessments in the provinces.
    • Maintaining the different ranking of the cities according to the old motto "divide et impera!" e) Cities according to ancient Latin law (which is transferred to provinces).
  • Arch of Augustus at the Forum
  • Construction of the Aqua Virgo
  • Isis auditorium (Palatine Hill)
  • Milliarium Aureum (forum)
  • Historical work of Pompey Trogus (excerpts from Justinus have been preserved)
  • Nikolaos of Damascus (biography of Augustus)
19
  • Augustus had resigned his eleventh consulate in 23 (of a total of thirteen, Tac.ann.1,9) and refused to take it over again (Cass.Dio, 54.1ff.). He stayed mainly in the east and only returned to Rome after unrest and at the request of the Senate. There he was given the new powers without office, whereby the formations of the principate were completed (Cass.Dio 54,10; Suet.Aug.28):
    • the "cura legum et morum" (supervision of laws and customs) for five years.
    • the right to issue ordinances with full legal status (the so-called "leges Augustae")
    • Granting of consular authority (imperium consulare) for life. (External signs: constantly 12 lictors as escort and the sella curulis between the two consuls as the official residence).
      Cass.Dio 54,10,1: ὑπάτευε μὲν δὴ ἐν τῷ ἔτει ἐκείνῳ Γάιος Σέντιος · ἐπεὶ δὲ καὶ τὸν συνάρξοντα αὐτῷ προσαποδειχθῆναι ἔδει (ὁ γὰρ Αὔγουστος οὐδὲ τότε τηρηθεῖσάν οἱ τὴν ἀρχὴν ἐδέξατο) στάσις τε αὖθις ἐν τῇ Ῥώμῃ συνηνέχθη καὶ σφαγαὶ συνέβησαν , ὥστε τοὺς βουλευτὰς φρουρὰν τῷ Σεντίῳ ψηφίσασθαι. (2) ἐπειδή τε μήτε ἠθέλησεν αὐτῇ χρήσασθαι, πρέσβεις πρὸς τὸν Αὔγουστον, μετὰ δύο ῥαβδούχπων ἕκνστν, ἔκνστν, ἔκνστν, ἔκαστμν, ἔκαστμν, κστμν, ψκαστμν. μαθὼν οὖν ταῦτ 'ἐκεῖνος, καὶ συνιδὼν ὅτι οὐδὲν πέρας τοῦ κακοῦ γενήσοιτο, οὐκέτ' αὐτοῖς ὁμοίως ὥσπερ καὶ πρὶν προσηνέχθη, ἀλλ 'ἔκ τε τῶν πρεσβευτῶν αὐτῶν Κύιντον Λουκρήτιον, καίπερ ἐν τοῖς ἐπικηρυχθεῖσιν ἀναγραφέντα, ὕπατον ἀπέδειξε, καὶ αὐτὸς ἐς τὴν Ῥώμην ἠπείχθη. (3) καὶ αὐτῷ ἐπί τε τούτοις καὶ ἐπὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις τοῖς ἐν τῇ ἀποδημίᾳ πραχθεῖσι πολλὰ καὶ παντοῖα ἐψηφίσθη · ὧν οὐδὲν προσήκατο, πλὴν Τύχῃ τε Ἐπαναγώγῳ (οὕτω γάρ πως αὐτὴν ἐκάλεσαν) βωμὸν ἱδρυθῆναι καὶ τὴν ἡμέραν, ἣν ἀφίξοιτο, ἔν τε ταῖς ἱερομηνίαις ἀριθμεῖσθαι καὶ Αὐγουστάλια ὀνομάζεσθαι. (4) ἐπεὶ δὲ καὶ ὣς αἵ τε ἀρχαὶ καὶ οἱ ἄλλοι προαπαντῆσαί οἱ προπαρεσκευάσαντο, νύκτωρ ἐς τὴν πόλιν ἐσεκομίσθη, καὶ τῇ ὑστεραίᾳ τῷ τε Τιβερίῳ τὰς τῶν ἐστρατηγηκότων τιμὰς ἔδωκε, καὶ τῷ Δρούσῳ πέντε ἔτεσι θᾶσσον παρὰ τὰ νομιζόμενα τὰς ἀρχὰς αἰτῆσαι ἐπέτρεψεν. (5) ἐπειδή τε μηδὲν ὡμολόγει ὅσα τε ἀπόντος αὐτοῦ στασιάζοντες καὶ ὅσα παρόντος φοβούμενοι ἔπρασσον, ἐπιμελητής τε τῶν τρόπων ἐς πέντε ἔτη παρακληθεὶς δὴ ἐχειροτονήθη, καὶ τὴν ἐξουσίαν τὴν μὲν τῶν τιμητῶν ἐς τὸν αὐτὸν χρόνον τὴν δὲ τῶν ὑπάτων διὰ βίου ἔλαβεν, ὥστε καὶ ταῖς δώδεκα ῥάβδοις ἀεὶ καὶ πανταχοῦ χρῆσθαι, καὶ ἐν μέσῳ τῶν ἀεὶ ὑπατευόντων ἐπὶ τίαροῦ ἀρχιυθ θιυυ θιυ θιυ δίφθεοι θιυυ δίφθεοῦ θιυυῦ θιυθ θιυθ θιυθ θιυθῦ δφθεθεοίζ θιυν (6) ψηφισάμενοι δὲ ταῦτα διορθοῦν τε πάντα αὐτὸν καὶ νομοθετεῖν, ὅσα βούλοιτο, ἠξίουν, καὶ τούς τε νόμους τοὺς γραφησομένους ὑπ 'αὐτοῦ Αὐγούστους ἐκεῖθεν ἤδη προσηγόρευον, καὶ ἐμμενεῖν σφισιν ὀμόσαι ἤθελον. ὁ δὲ τὰ μὲν ἄλλα ὡς ἅτε καὶ ἀναγκαῖα ἐδέξατο, τοὺς δ 'ὅρκους ἀφῆκεν αὐτοῖς · (7) καὶ γὰρ εὖ ᾔδει, ὅτι, εἰ μὲν ἀπὸ γνώμης τι ψηφίσαιντο, τηρήσουσιν αὐτό, κἂν μὴ ὀμόσωσιν, εἰ δὲ μή, οὐδὲν αὐτοῦ, κἂν μυρίας πίστεις ἐπαγάγωσι, προτιμήσουσιν.In the year that this happened, Gaius Sentius was consul. Since he had also been admitted to a comrade in office (even now Augustus had not accepted the position reserved for him), riots broke out again in Rome and there were bloody appearances, so that the senators had to instruct Sentius to maintain public security. But because the latter refused to accept the power that had been transferred to him, they sent delegates, each with two lictors, to Augustus. When he heard the news and found that the evil would not end, he no longer behaved as before, but appointed one of the deputies, Quintus Lucretius, to be consul, even though he had previously been on the list of ostracisms, and hurried back to Rome himself . Because of his return and the arrangements made on his journey, he was awarded various honors; but he did not accept any of them, and only allowed the so-called Fortuna Redux, whom they called, to erect an altar, the day of his arrival to be counted among the lucky ones and named Augustalia. Notwithstanding the fact that the authorities and the people were preparing to overtake him, he came into the city by night and on the following day gave Tiberius the rank of retired praetor and Drusus permission, five years earlier than the law stipulated, apply for offices. But since what during the riots did not coincide with what had been decreed out of fear in his presence, he was elected moral judge for five years and censor for the same time and received consular power for life, so that he always and everywhere to have the twelve bundles of rods carried before him and to sit on the curule chair between the consuls. After these resolutions, they asked him to put everything back in order and to enact whatever laws he wanted. From now on they called the laws to be enacted by him Augustic and offered to swear their obedience. He accepted these provisions as necessary, but gave them the oath, because he knew well that, if they were serious about the resolutions, they would keep them without any special obligation, otherwise they would not be bound by thousands of oaths would. (Translated from L. Tafel)
  • Marcus Egnatius instigates a conspiracy against Augustus because he is not considered in the application for the consulate, but is convicted and executed (Tac.ann.1,10,4; Vell.2,91,3).
  • Lucius Cornelius Balbus minor, the proconsul of Africa after his victory over the Saramanten, triumphs as the last private citizen. As a result, only members of the imperial family are allowed to triumph. All others are only granted the insignia (ornamenta) triumphalia.