What is immunoglobulin


Antibodies are special proteins that can be found in the blood as well as in other body fluids. The main task of antibodies is to protect the body from everything that is foreign to the body - in other words, what does not belong directly to the body, such as

  • Microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites etc.),
  • Viruses,
  • Tumor cells and foreign tissue,
  • Bee pollen, animal poisons as well
  • many other natural or artificial substances and substances.

Antibodies are made by specific white blood cells - a subgroup of lymphocytes (B lymphocytes) that

  • Are called plasma cells.

Together with a number of special defense cells (scavenger cells, killer cells, etc.) as well as other complex defense systems (e.g. the complement system), the antibodies form this

There are various options for determining the antibodies in the blood or in other body fluids. On the one hand, all proteins in the blood (including the antibodies) can be detected with the help of the following laboratory test:

  • Serum protein electrophoresis.

In serum protein electrophoresis, the proteins in the blood fluid are separated into the following fractions according to their physical properties (size and electrical charge of the protein).

  • Albumin fraction
  • α1 globulin fraction
  • α2 globulin fraction
  • ß-globulin fraction
  • γ-globulin fraction

In this laboratory test, the antibodies are found in the γ-globulin fraction. For this reason there are also the following synonymous terms (synonyms) for antibodies:

  • Gamma globulins (γ-globulins) as well
  • Immunoglobulins.

In addition to serum protein electrophoresis, there are also other laboratory medical examination methods for antibody diagnostics:

  • Immune fixation - this procedure clearly detects and classifies an excessive increase in a certain type of antibody (so-called monoclonal M protein).
  • Quantitative determination (i.e. measurement of the antibody concentration in grams per liter). The following antibodies are always measured and assessed together in the blood: IgG, IgA and IgM.