Which elements are liquid at room temperature

Periodic Table of the Elements (PSE)

The shell-like structure of the electron shell of atoms ensures that the chemical properties of elements show great regularities. Since in many chemical compounds only the outer electrons - the valence electrons - participate in the bond, elements with the same outer orbitals also show similar chemical properties. If the elements are arranged according to the degree of filling of the individual orbitals, a system is created from which one can also guess the chemical properties. This system is that Periodic Table of the Elements (PSE). Historically, the system arose out of chemical considerations, when nothing was known about the orbital structure.

On this page I would like to give an overview of the periodic table of the elements. My intention on this page is to explain the structure of the periodic table and to explain some selected aspects in more detail.

Some elements are provided with a link. Some of the links lead to the description of a whole group of elements and not to the individual element. This is why there are often multiple references to the same pages.

The periodic table at a glance

This table shows the basic structure of the PSE. All elements in which the outermost orbital is an s or p orbital are entered here. The orbitals are indicated in the top line. The main shells are shown in the left column. The d and f orbitals are filled with a delay. 3d orbitals after the 4s orbitals, 4f orbitals only after the 6s orbitals. The d and f metals are only indicated in this table. They are detailed below. The number of elements in the individual groups is based on the quantization of the angular momentum of the electrons.

Bowls orbitalf orbitald orbitalp orbital
1.H
hydrogen
Hey
helium
   
2.Li
lithium
Be
beryllium
B.
boron
C.
carbon
N
nitrogen
O
oxygen
F.
fluorine
No
neon
3.N / A
sodium
Mg
magnesium
Al
aluminum
Si
Silicon
P
phosphorus
S.
sulfur
Cl
chlorine
Ar
argon
4.K
potassium
Approx
Calcium
3d metalsGa
gallium
Ge
Germanium
As
arsenic
Se
selenium
Br
bromine
Kr
krypton
5.Rb
Rubidium
Sr
strontium
4d metalsIn
Indium
Sn
tin
Sb
antimony
Te
Tellurium
I.
iodine
Xe
xenon
6.Cs
Cesium
Ba
barium
4f metals5d metalsTl
Thallium
Pb
lead
Bi
bismuth
Po
polonium
At
Astatine
Marg
radon
7.Fr.
Francium
Ra
radium
5f metals6d metals      

The names of the radioactive elements appear in red letters.
The elements highlighted in green are gaseous at room temperature,
the elements highlighted in blue, bromine and mercury, are liquid at room temperature.
All other elements are solid at room temperature.

Transition metals

This table lists the transition metals in which a d orbital is partially filled. This group includes the magnetic elements iron (Fe), cobalt (Co) and nickel (Ni) and the noble metals such as copper (Cu), silver (Ag) and gold (Au).

d-transition metals
3d
Metals:
Sc
Scandium
Ti
titanium
V
Vanadium
Cr
chrome
Mn
manganese
Fe
iron
Co
cobalt
Ni
nickel
Cu
copper
Zn
zinc
4d-
Metals:
Y
yttrium
Zr
Zirconium
Nb
niobium
Mon
molybdenum
Tc
Technetium
Ru
Ruthenium
Rh
Rhodium
Pd
palladium
Ag
silver
CD
cadmium
5d-
Metals:
Lu
lutetium
Hf
hafnium
Ta
Tantalum
W.
tungsten
re
rhenium
Os
osmium
Ir
iridium
Pt
platinum
Au
gold
Ed
Mercury
silver
6d-
Metals:
Lr
lawrencium
Rf
Ruther
fordium
Db
Dubnium
Sg
Seaborgium
Bra
Bohrium
Hs
Hassium
Mt
Meitnerium
Ds
Darmstadtium
Rg
Roentgenium
Cn
Copernicium

Lanthanides and actinides

Finally, the following tables list the elements that are characterized by partially occupied f-orbitals.

The Lanthanides (actually lantanoids = lanthanum-like) or 4f metals are very similar to the elements scandium (Sc) and yttrium (Y) and are called with them rare earth designated. Except for promethium (Pm), they are all stable (i.e. not radioactive). The element gadolinium (Gd) is magnetic at temperatures below 16 degrees Celsius.

4f metals = lanthanides or lanthanides
La
Lanthanum
Ce
cerium
Pr
Praseodymium
Nd
Neodymium
Pm
promethium
Sm
Samarium
Eu
Europium
Gd
Gadolinium
Tb
Terbium
Dy
Dysprosium
Ho
holmium
He
Erbium
Tm
Thulium
Yb
ytterbium

The group of Actinides (actually actinides = actinium-like) contains only radioactive elements. The notorious elements uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) are found here.

5f metals = actinides or actinides
Ac
Actinium
Th
Thorium
Pa
Protactinium
U
uranium
Np
neptunium
Pooh
plutonium
At the
Americium
Cm
Curium
Bk
Berkelium
Cf
Californium
It
Einsteinium
Fm
Fermium
Md
Mendelevium
No
Nobelium

© 1999-2020 Joachim Schulz - Only real on www.Quantenwelt.de

Last change: 04/24/2010