What is Russian culture


Russia inherited today's education system from the Soviet Union, which financed the entire education system from the state. The withdrawal of the state and the financial crisis paralyzed the reform of the education and science system in the 1990s. A fundamental paradigm shift ushered in the approval of private educational institutions and the abolition of the state monopoly on education. Today around 10% of Russian students study at non-state universities. A large number of new school types emerged, such as grammar schools and lycees and other non-state schools with educational reform approaches. In the area of ​​vocational training, too, a private network of vocational schools is being created alongside the state. The state consolidation policy has brought new impulses and changes in the education sector since 2000. The state saw education as an important pillar in the economic modernization process and began again to make more funds available for education. In 2017, the state spent four percent of the central budget on education.

In 2003 Russia joined the Bologna Process to promote the competitiveness of the Russian education system. In parallel to the classic five-year diploma training, the two-stage BA / MA system (4 years Bachelor, 2 years Master) has been introduced across the board since autumn 2007. The adoption of a “federal target program on the development of education from 2006 to 2010” was closely linked to the integration into the “Single European Education Area”. The deficits of the Russian education system should be eliminated by improving the quality, modernizing the content and technical equipment and by more effective administration as well as by the introduction of market economy structures. The accelerated expansion of the Internet at schools and universities is intended to promote integration into the international knowledge community.

As the first measure of a long-term educational reform, a uniform final examination was introduced nationwide in 2010, which is also intended to largely replace the university entrance examinations that have been widespread up to now. Foreign languages ​​can be taught from the second grade onwards. The reform of the education system is to be implemented in stages by 2020. The change to more competition is to take place via the education vouchers, the so-called GIFO (state nominal financial obligations). The education vouchers are tied to the results of a standardized state Abitur examination (EGE): the better the examination results of the Abitur graduates, the less they have to pay for their studies themselves.

The Russian higher education landscape is experiencing profound changes. A dualistic system is currently emerging: On the one hand, 45 so-called leading universities, which include the two state universities in Moscow and St. Petersburg, nine federal universities and, as a further group, the 34 national research universities. You have prevailed in an excellence competition and will receive considerable additional funding. On the other side are the remaining universities, which in future will only be funded depending on the number of enrolled students. The structure of the Academy of Sciences of Russia is also fundamentally changed. In the future, a state science agency will control the fate of the institutes. With these reforms, Russia wants to join the world leaders in research. In order to win young people back into research, Russia will in future give more money to young scientists and relax legal regulations. The universities can now keep talented scientists in research and attract excellent young researchers from abroad.

Compulsory schooling in Russia is nine years; School attendance at state schools is free of charge. Due to the demographic development, the number of schoolchildren has decreased by around a quarter in the last five years. The school system is divided into a four-year elementary school and a five-year basic level. This is followed by a three-tier educational system: In addition to the eleven-grade middle school (degree: university entrance qualification), there is the option of attending a vocational school (one to two years, degree: specialist certificate) or two to three years of training at a technical college (degree: technician diploma). The majority of the students then decide to attend the two-year middle school, which ends with a university qualification. In the Pisa ranking of 2015, Russian students ranked 23rd out of 72 countries in mathematics, 32nd in science and 26th in reading comprehension.

The return of the state to education was reflected in the introduction of uniform educational standards and a limitation in the number of state textbooks. In connection with this policy there is a partial return to Soviet elements (new textbooks in history lessons, military training, establishment of youth organizations), combined with the strengthening of patriotic awareness.