What is the definition of sale

sale

Sales, sales

Sales, distribution of bank services to bank customers. The result of the sale is the turnover or revenue.

Turnover or sales activities which have the aim of concluding a contract for the offered service with the customer and thus the legal and economic transfer of this service (—Distribution policy). The sales activities include in particular the acquisition of information about customers, the acquisition of orders and sales support through advice, instruction and the presentation of goods (personal sales). The sale comprises a variety of sub-functions with corresponding requirements for the seller, whereby in reality, depending on industry and product-specific factors, different priorities can be observed: (1) The acquisition function relates to the acquisition of new customers. It especially challenges the ability to make contacts, but also the resourcefulness and creativity of the seller. (2) The communication function includes the role of the seller as a dialogue partner for the (potential) customer in personal sales. (3) It is supplemented by the ability to overcome psychological and objective buying resistance as part of the closing function. However, the importance of this function is decreasing in the context of the development towards so-called soft selling and long-term relationship management. (4) The service function includes all services of the seller, e.g. B. quality checks, shelf checks, training courses, etc., the z. T. during the sale, e.g. Sometimes incurred before or after the purchase. Sometimes this function is also assigned to specially assigned personnel, e.g. B. its own customer service or merchandiser transferred. (5) The increasingly important information function concerns the collection and preparation of the information required for the sales process, which can be supported by customer databases. The seller acts here as an analyst who examines the specific sales situation and, based on this, plans and controls sales strategies and tactics. (6) Finally, the functional profile of the seller also includes a coordination function, which deals with the coordination and implementation of the activities and orders agreed with the customer in his own company, e.g. B. the information of various bodies, the deadline monitoring or the coordination with the delivery is possible. (7) Not sales-specific, but because of the size of many field workers, the management functions in sales are particularly labor-intensive in addition to these basic functions.

Turnover or sales activities that have the aim of concluding a contract for the offered service with the customer and thus the legal and economic transfer of this service (sales and field service policy). The sales activities include v. a. the acquisition of information about customers, the acquisition of orders and sales support through advice, instruction and the presentation of goods. The sale comprises a variety of sub-functions with corresponding requirements for the seller, whereby in reality, depending on v. a. There are different focal points to be observed for branch and product-specific factors: The acquisition function concerns the acquisition of new customers. In particular, it challenges the ability to make contacts, but also the resourcefulness and creativity of the seller. The communication function includes the role of the seller as a dialogue partner for the (potential) customer in personal sales. It is supplemented by the ability to overcome psychological and objective resistance to buying within the framework of the closing function (closing a sale). However, the importance of this function is decreasing in the context of the development towards so-called soft selling and long-term relationship management. The service function includes all of the seller's services, e.g. quality checks, shelf checks, training courses, etc. T. during the sale, e.g. Sometimes incurred before or after the purchase. In some cases, this function is also transferred to specially assigned staff, e.g. our own customer service or merchandiser. The increasingly important information function relates to the collection and preparation of the information required for the sales process, which can be supported by customer databases. The seller acts here as an analyst who examines the specific sales situation and, based on this, plans and controls sales strategies and tactics. Finally, the functional image of the seller also includes a coordination function, which is about the coordination and implementation of the activities and orders agreed with the customer in his own company, e.g. informing various offices, monitoring deadlines or coordinating with the delivery. Not sales-specific, but particularly labor-intensive due to the size of many sales representatives, alongside these basic functions are the management functions in sales, which, like other sales-related management problems, are dealt with in sales and field policy. The diverse manifestations of sales can be represented according to different criteria. If one differentiates according to the object of sale, one can distinguish between sales of consumer goods, services or capital goods. If you choose the place of sale, there is a subdivision into indoor and outdoor sales. In the case of indoor sales, the potential buyer goes to the seller's location (e.g. sales office, factory shop), while in the case of outdoor sales, a sales organ of the provider visits the potential customer. Depending on the form of contact, a distinction can be made between personal, semi-personal (telephone, video conference, etc.) and impersonal (letter, telex, teletex, Btx, etc.) sales. Depending on the individuality and problematic nature of the sales talk, the range of sales forms extends from highly executive vehicle sales (e.g. drinks delivery) to order inquiries, e.g. in the form of order records from wholesalers, or the activities of doctor visitors, which are more focused on image cultivation, all the way to advice, yes, product development-oriented technical sales or the interactive selling and production of personal services, for example in management consulting. Finally, the sale can be broken down according to the position of the seller within the company. In many cases, sales negotiations with major customers are conducted by management or key account management, while salespeople at lower management levels take care of subordinate customers. Marketing science has so far paid relatively little attention to the specific manifestations and problems of sales. Even the classification in the marketing mix is ​​done differently - with understandable reasons, of course. Partly in the communication mix, partly in the distribution policy. However, because of the integration of services and the increase in system business, there are overlaps with product policy and because of the problems of price enforcement that have to be overcome when selling, including price policy. Sales economics concepts for the planning, implementation and control of economic structures and process flows in sales (marketing key figures, marketing controlling) have the longest tradition. Various operations research models for visiting time allocation, round trip planning, traveler allocation, etc. can also be included in this (sales and field service policy). A variety of models, which are intended to help model and optimize sales as a communication process, originate mainly from communication theory and research. The range of models extends from simple rules of personal communication and dialectics or the style of argument, for example in price argumentation, to the analysis of non-verbal communication during sales talks, process models of the communication flow, to complex (social) psychological models of communication, such as the Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP). In capital goods marketing in particular, the concept of interaction theory was promoted, in which the interplay between attempts to influence the seller and the reaction of the buyer being advertised and the specifics of organizational procurement behavior and sales concepts tailored to it, as well as aspects of relationship management are addressed (interaction theory). The multi-personal structure of many sales processes between selling and buying centers also received special attention. Negotiation research shows a certain affinity to these theoretical approaches, which is concerned with the evaluation of different negotiation styles, but also with the influence of situational factors on the success of the negotiation. In some cases, power theory and game theory models are also used here. Relevant theories and concepts were finally also developed in business organization theory (sales organization, marketing organization). /

Literature: Kotier, Pb., Marketing-Management, 4th ed., Stuttgart 1989. Wage,]. L., Psychology and Technique of the Sales Talk,
9th edition, Munich 1988. Weis, H.Ch., Sales, Ludwigshafen 1988.

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