Malnutrition could cause a weaker immune system

Overview of immunodeficiency diseases

Immunodeficiency disorders are associated with a variety of complications, including infections, autoimmune diseases and lymphomas, and other cancers; Immunodeficiency disorders can also predispose patients to such complications. Primary immunodeficiencies are genetic and can be hereditary; secondary immunodeficiencies are acquired and are much more common.

This immunodeficiency test includes a medical history, physical exam, and immune function test. The exams vary based on the following criteria:

  • Whether a primary or secondary immunodeficiency is suspected

  • In the case of primary immunodeficiency, which component of the immune system appears to be deficient.

Primary immunodeficiency

These diseases are genetically determined; they can appear as an individual disease or as part of a syndrome. More than 100 of these disorders have been described, and they can be very heterogeneous. The molecular basis is known for more than 80%.

The primary immunodeficiencies usually manifest in early childhood and childhood as abnormally frequent (recurrent) or unusual infections. When the disease first appears, about 70% of patients are <20 years old, and because of the often X-linked inheritance, 60% of cases are male. The overall incidence of symptomatic immunodeficiency is estimated at 1/280.

The classification of primary immunodeficiencies is based on the main component of the immune system that is deficient, absent or defective:

The more molecular defects are defined, the more appropriate a classification according to molecular defects becomes.