Which African countries have peacefully achieved their independence?
Zeitbilder 4, textbook
104 Decolonization The pursuit of independence For a long time, Europeans benefited greatly from their colonies in Africa and Asia. In the course of the 20th century, however, the “rule of the white man” was increasingly called into question. The chances of liberation from colonialism were good after the Second World War: Europe was politically and economically weakened. Some colonial powers tried to prevent the threatened detachment of their colonies: They gave them more rights. But it was too late: after uprisings and unrest, decolonization could no longer be stopped. Struggles for Independence Movements for independence were often led by men and women educated in European and American schools and universities. Most of the time, the detachment involved long struggles; it was rarely achieved in a peaceful manner. India was the first country to free itself from colonial rule (see p. 106). A little later, the aspirations for freedom reached Africa. The difficult legacy of colonial rule In many countries, especially in Africa, bloody wars have come and go. The new African states had mostly emerged within the boundaries that the European powers had arbitrarily determined. Different tribes, their customs, religions and languages were not taken into account. Local dictators often took power. Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean pacific Ocean 1941–1950 1951–1959 1960 1961–1970 from 1970 Egypt 1 Ivory Coast 2 Togo 3 Benin Wal shbai Namibi a São Tomé and Principe Equat. Guinea Liberia Sierra Leone Guinea Guinea-Bissau Gambi a Senegal Mauritania Sahara (occupied by Mar okko) Mar okko Algeria Niger Chad Libya Mali Burkina Faso Nigeria Central Afr. Rep. Cameroon Uganda Rwanda Zair e Kenya Ethiopia Sudan Djibouti Angola Malaw i Burundi Tanzania Madagascar Swaziland Lesotho Botswana Zimbabwe e Rep. South Africa 1 2 3 Gabon C ongo S omalia Tunisia M o ç ambique S ambia 0 2000 km Ghana “proxy wars “: The USA and the Soviet Union tried from the 1960s to the 1980s to expand their political power and military strength worldwide. They therefore had representatives fight for themselves in various conflicts. Decolonization after 1945: In 1960 alone, 17 African states achieved their independence. That is why this year went down in history as the “African Year”. It's your turn • Name the countries that became independent in 1960. Which states gained independence earlier, which later? The end of colonialism For testing purposes only - property of the publisher öbv
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